Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. Though these forests occur in climates that are warm year-round, and may receive several hundred centimeters of rain per year, they have long dry seasons which last several months and vary with geographic location. These seasonal droughts have great impact on all living things in the forest.
Though less biologically diverse than rainforests, tropical dry forests are home to a wide variety of wildlife including monkeys, deer, large cats, parrots, various rodents, and ground dwelling birds. Mammalian biomass tends to be higher in dry forests than in rain forests, especially in Asian and African dry forests. Many of these species display extraordinary adaptations to the difficult climate.
This biome is alternately known as the tropical bane forest biome or the tropical and subtropical deciduous forest biome. Locally some of these forests are also called monsoon forests, and they tend to merge into savannas.
Dry forests tend to exist north and south of the equatorial rainforest belt, south or north of the subtropical deserts, generally in two bands, one between 10x and 20xN latitude and the other between 10x and 20xS latitude. The most diverse dry forests in the world occur in southern Mexico and in the Bolivian lowlands. The dry forests of the Pacific Coast of northwestern South America support a wealth of unique species due to their dry climate. The Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets along the east coast of South Africa are diverse and support many endemic species. The dry forests of central India and Indochina are notable for their diverse large vertebrate faunas. Madagascar dry deciduous forests and New Caledonia dry forests are also highly distinctive for a wide range of taxa and at higher taxonomic levels. Trees use underground water during the dry seasons.
Species tend to have wider ranges than moist forest species, although in some regions many species do display highly restricted ranges; most dry forest species are restricted to tropical dry forests, particularly in plants; beta diversity and alpha diversity high but typically lower than adjacent moist forests.
Effective conservation of dry broadleaf forests requires the preservation of large and continuous areas of forest. Large natural areas are required to maintain larger predators and other vertebrates, and to buffer sensitive species from hunting pressure. The persistence of riparian forests and water sources is critical for many dry forest species. Large swathes of intact forest are required to allow species to recover from occasional large events, like forest fires.
Dry forests are highly sensitive to excessive burning and deforestation; overgrazing and exotic species can also quickly change natural communities; restoration is possible but challenging, particularly if degradation has been intense and persistent. Degrading dry broadleaf often leaves thorny shrublands, thickets, or dry grasslands in their place.
Much material in this article has been reworked from Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests, by WWF with their permission.
Related Sites for Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
- BBC Nature – Tropical dry forest videos, news and facts read Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
- BBC Nature – Rainforest videos, news and facts read Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
- tropical – definition of tropical by the Free Online Dictionary … read Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
- North American Ecoregions – Vanderbilt University read Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests