Tag Archives: music
Open Music Model
The Open Music Model is an economic and technological framework for the recording industry based on research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It predicts that the playback of prerecorded music will be regarded as a service rather than individually sold products, and that the only system for the digital distribution of music that will be viable against piracy is a subscription-based system supporting file sharing and free of digital rights management. The research also suggests a price of US$5 per month for unlimited downloads as the market clearing point. Since its publication, a number of its principles have been adopted throughout the recording industry.
The model was 1st articulated by Shuman Ghosemajumder in his 2002 paper “Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models.” The following year, it was coined and proposed as the Open Music Model.
The model suggests changing the way consumers interact with the digital property market: rather than being seen as a good to be purchased from online vendor, music would be treated as a service being provided by the industry, with firms based on the model serving as intermediaries between the music industry and its consumers. The model proposed giving consumers unlimited access to music downloads for the price of US$5 per month, based on research showing that the would be the market clearing price, expected to bring in a total revenue of over US$3 billion per year.
The research conducted at MIT demonstrated the demand for third-party file sharing programs. Insofar as the interest for a particular piece of digital property is high, and the risk of acquiring the good via illegitimate means is low, people will naturally flock towards third-party services such as Napster and Morpheus.
The Open Music Model predicted the failure of online music distribution systems based on digital rights management. A startup in Germany, Playment, is working on adapting the entire model to a commercial setting as the basis for its business model.
Criticisms of the model included that it would not eliminate the issue of piracy. Others countered that it was in fact the most viable solution to piracy, since piracy was “inevitable”. Supporters argued that it offered a superior alternative to the current law-enforcement based methods used by the recording industry.
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Music piracy is the copying and distributing of copies of a piece of music for which the composer, recording artist, or copyright-holding record company didn’t give consent. It is a form of copyright infringement, which is a civil wrong and, under certain circumstances, even a crime in many countries. The late 20th and early 21st centuries saw much controversy about copyright piracy, regarding the ethics of the act redistributing media content, how much production and distribution companies in the media were losing, and the very scope of what ought to be considered “piracy”—and cases involving the piracy of music were among the most frequently discussed in the debate.
The fact that digital products are virtual instead of physical affects the economic mechanisms behind the production and distribution of content, and how piracy works for digital as opposed to physical products: “the main consequence of the non-physical form of digital products is their virtually negligible marginal cost of reproduction and their ability to be digitally delivered.” The cost of burning a CD drastically lowered the overhead for record companies, as well as for music pirates, and with the growing tendency toward online distribution among legitimate and illicit distributors alike, the expense of distributing shrunk further from the costs of printing and transporting CDs to merely the costs of maintaining a website. By sheer volume of file transfers, though, distributing music through traditional web servers and FTP servers were not as popular as peer to peer now, because the traditional direct download method is slower.
The 2008 British Music Rights survey showed that 80% of people in Britain wanted a legal P2P service. This was consistent with the results of earlier research conducted in the United States, upon which the Open Music Model was based. In addition, the majority of filesharers in the survey preferred to get their music from “local sources” such as LAN connections, email, flash drives, sharing with other people they know personally. The other most common method of filesharing was with P2P technologies. By 2007, P2P networks’ popularity had grown so much that they used as much as 39% of the total volume of information exchanged over the internet.
Piracy’s real effect on music sales is difficult to accurately assess. In neoclassical economics prices are determined by the combination of the forces of supply and demand, but the participators in the digital market don’t always follow the usual motives and behaviors of the supply and demand system. First, the cost of digital distribution has decreased significantly from the costs of distribution by former methods. Furthermore, the majority of the filesharing community will distribute copies of music for a zero price in monetary terms, and there are some consumers who are willing to pay a certain price for legitimate copies even when they could just as easily obtain pirated copies, such as with pay what you want vendors.
In face of the growing encroachment on potential sales from internet piracy, industry associations like the Recording Industry Association of America have lobbied for stricter laws and stricter punishment of those breaking copyright law. Record companies have also turned to technological barriers to copying, such as DRM, to some controversy. These organizations have tried to add more controls to the digital copy of the music to prevent consumers from copying the music. For the most part, the industry has come to a consensus that, if not DRM, then some similar measures are necessary for them to continue to make a profit.
Critics of the record companies’ strategy have proposed that the attempts to maintain sales rates is impeding the rights of legitimate listeners to use and listen to the music as they wish. When the US Congress passed the Copyright Act of 1909, it deliberately gave less copyright control to music composers than that of novelists: “Its fear was the monopoly power of rights holders, and that that power would stifle follow-on creativity”. According to the internationally established Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Existing laws and regulations may be too broad and general to deal adequately with the rapid technological developments that facilitate digital piracy, and policy makers may need to consider enacting some specific provisions to deal with these infringements. Such provisions should not unduly impede legitimate digital communications, nor unreasonably impact on the Internet as an effective communications platform, commercial channel and educational tool…”
The RIAA, a powerful lobby for the recording industry, is responsible for carrying out most of the lawsuits against music piracy in the United States. Some claim that the enforcement against music piracy, which may cost copyright violators up to $150,000 per infringement, is unreasonable, and that it may even violate United States constitutional protections against cruel and unusual punishment. Some have accused the RIAA of outright bullying, as when one of their lawyers, Matt Oppenheimer, told the defendant in one lawsuit, “You don’t want to pay another visit to a dentist like me”. In that same case, according to Lawrence Lessig, “the RIAA insisted it would not settle the case until it took every penny [the defendant] had saved”.
Alongside with The RIAA and BPI’s industry anti-piracy service sit a number of other independent companies offering anti-piracy solutions. These companies tend to have a better reach and success rate than the slower industry bodies and provide an alternative solution. Notable market leaders include Web Sheriff, Detecnet, Muso and Attributor.
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Traditional Inuit music, the music of the Inuit, has been based around drums used in dance music as far back as can be known, and a vocal style called katajjaq has become of interest in Canada and abroad.
Characteristics of Inuit music include: recitative-like singing, complex rhythmic organization, relatively small melodic range averaging about a sixth, prominence of major thirds and minor seconds melodically, with undulating melodic movement.
The Copper Inuit living around Coppermine River flowing North to Coronation Gulf have generally two categories of music. A song is called pisik if the performer also plays drums and aton if he only dances.
Until the advent of commercial recording technology, Inuit music was usually used in spiritual ceremonies to ask the spirits for good luck in hunting or gambling, as well as simple lullabies. Inuit music has long been noted for a stoic lack of work or love songs. These musical beginnings were modified with the arrival of European sailors, especially from Scotland and Ireland. Instruments like the accordion were popularized, and dances like the jig or reel became common. Scots-Irish derived American country music has been especially popular among Inuit in the 20th century.
Inuit vocal games are usually played by two women facing each other in close proximity. They use the other participant’s oral cavity as resonators but may also play under a kitchen pot for the resonances to be more pronounced. The game consists of repeating meaningless words in tight rhythmic canon. The strong accent of one participant coincides with the weak of the other. The breathing of the players are thus also alternated. Vocal techniques include voiced and voiceless articulations and different articulations, and different placement of sound in the chest, throat and nose areas.
Vocal games are unique to the Inuit.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has been broadcasting music in Inuit communities since 1961, when CFFB was opened in Frobisher Bay, Northwest Territories. Charlie Panigoniak was the best-known of the early Inuit recording stars, and he remains a popular guitarist. The most famous Inuit performers, however, are Susan Aglukark, Lucie Idlout and Tanya Tagaq. In Greenland, there is an Inuit hip hop crew called Nuuk Posse, which formed in 1985 and raps in the Kalaallisut language.
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Simon Lynge is a singer-songwriter who was raised in Greenland.
Lynge is the 1st solo musical artist from Greenland to have an album released across the United Kingdom, and the 1st Greenlander to play the UK’s Glastonbury Festival. Lynge has performed extensively across Europe and the United States, and he accompanied Emmylou Harris as support act on the American singer’s 2011 tour of Europe.
Lynge’s 2010 debut album, The Future, described by Rolling Stone magazine as “one of the most memorable and melodic debut albums of recent years”, reached the top of the Amazon.com UK Rock Charts in the week of its release. Lynge’s music has variously been compared by writers to that of Paul Simon, James Taylor, The Beach Boys and The Beatles. Since 2008, Lynge has lived in Jefferson County, Washington.
Lynge was born Simon Overgaard Lynge in Holstebro, Denmark, but grew up in Qaqortoq, Greenland. His father was a theatrical performer and an accordionist who played with the Greenlandic musician Rasmus Lyberth. Lynge has said that he had no formal schooling as a child, but worked as a shepherd and hunter, living in a village of fewer than 40 residents that was an hour’s boat ride from the nearest town.
As a teenager, Lynge worked as a delivery boy for a supermarket in Qaqortoq. Shortly afterwards he moved back to Denmark, where he enrolled in the Holstebro Music School to study opera, piano, drums and music theory. While in Denmark, he became part of the young Copenhagen music scene, performing his own compositions as a singer and guitarist at a range of venues. Around this time he also travelled to London, Nashville and Los Angeles to perform and write his own music.
In 2008, Lynge played a concert in the Hollywood music venue Highland Grounds and impressed the producer Matt Forger, who suggested recording his songs. Shortly afterwards, Lynge began the intensive series of recording sessions at Bright Orange Studios in Los Angeles that resulted in his debut album, The Future. The co-producers were Forger and Jon Mattox.
Released on the independent London-based label Lo-Max Records in 2010, the album caused a wave of media interest, leading to appearances on BBC television and Sky News in the UK, an appearance on Swedish television, and press features in Europe. The album was nominated in the Independent Music Awards of 2010. It has been released in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Ireland and New Zealand, in addition to the UK.
Lynge usually performs live with the multi-instrumentalist Richard Lobb, with whom he wrote the song London Town on his debut album. Lynge’s larger concerts have also seen him accompanied by a full string section.
Lynge spent much of 2010 touring across Europe, in addition to accepting a request to perform at the Sundance Film Festival in Utah. In July 2010 he headlined the music festival in Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagen, playing to an audience of more than 25,000.
His song “The Future” was featured in a 2009 advertisement for the world’s most northerly four-star hotel, Hotel Arctic in Ilulissat, Greenland. The advertisement won the Gold award at the 2010 Golden City Gate competition in Berlin. Lynge’s songs have also featured on US television shows including Lie to Me and Brothers & Sisters.
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Fungi is the name given to the local musical form of the British Virgin Islands. It is also the native music of the U.S. Virgin Islands, where it is known as quelbe. Fungi music is an expression of Virgin Islands culture as it shows the islands’ African and European influences in a unique sound. The name fungi comes from a local dish of the same name. It is a cornmeal-based food which is made with different ingredients including okra, onions, and green peppers, and is sometimes served plain. This “cook-up” which is a savoury fusion of different flavors creates something new. Similarly, Fungi music is a blend of many different instruments and styles. A fungi band is based on the fusion of a wide range of instruments, many of which are homemade. The beat of the double bass is usually the base for a colourful mix of sounds and instruments.
Themes explored in fungi music include love and relationship, folklore, the basis of Virgin Islander oral history, on topics ranging from church life to smuggling rum as well as current events and social commentary.
Fungi music is usually very festive, even humorous, as it is made for dancing. Band perform at a variety of events including weddings, festivals, parties as well as in restaurants and hotels.
There is a definite melody and rhythm and the lyrics are meaningful, as the songs tell stories from the past. These stories are reminders of the life the people of the British Virgin Islands lived. In the British Virgin Islands, fungi music is popular during such events as the British Virgin Islands Music Festival and in both the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, the music is part of the school curriculum.
Notable fungi artists are educator-turned politician Elmore Stoutt who is regarded as the Fungi Master and the legendary Lashing Dogs.
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Music of Pakistan
The Music of Pakistan includes diverse elements ranging from music from various parts of South Asia as well as Central Asian, Persian, Turkish, Arabic and modern-day Western popular music influences. With these multiple influences, a distinctive Pakistani sound has been formed.
In poetry, the ghazal is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. Each line must share the same meter. Etymologically, the word literally refers to “the mortal cry of a gazelle”. The animal is called Ghizaal, from which the English word gazelles stems, or Kastori haran (where haran refers to deer) in Urdu. Ghazals are traditionally expressions of love, separation and loneliness, for which the gazelle is an appropriate image. A ghazal can thus be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation of the lover and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 10th century Persian verse. It is derived from the Persian qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are more stringent than those of most poetic forms traditionally written in English. In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central theme of love and separation. It is considered by many to be one of the principal poetic forms the Persian civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world.
The ghazals can be sung both for men and women, as an expression of love/beauty.
The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Exotic to the region, as is indicated by the very sounds of the name itself when properly pronounced as ġazal. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Urdu poetry, today, it has influenced the poetry of many languages. Most Ghazal singers are trained in classical music and sing in either Khyal or Thumri.
Qawwali is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis. Qawwali is a vibrant musical tradition that stretches back more than 700 years in India. Originally performed mainly at Sufi shrines throughout the India, it has also gained mainstream popularity. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Aziz Mian, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and sabri brothers, largely due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Listeners, and often artists themselves are transported to a state of wajad, a trance-like state where they feel at one with God, generally considered to be the height of spiritual ecstasy in Sufism. The roots of Qawwali can be traced back to 8th century Persia, however, Qawwali in the form we know it today was essentially created by Amir Khusrau in the late 13th century.
During the 1st major migration from Persia, in the 11th century, the musical tradition of Sama migrated to South Asia, Turkey and Uzbekistan. Rumi and his Mevlana order of Sufism have been the propagators of Sama in Central Asia. Amir Khusrau of the Chisti order of Sufis is credited with fusing the Persian and South Asian musical traditions, to create Qawwali as well as the classical music tradition. The word “Sama” is used in Central Asia and Turkey, for forms very similar to Qawwali while in Pakistan, the formal name used for a session of Qawwali is “Mehfil-e-Sama”.
A group of qawwali musicians, called Humnawa in Urdu, typically consists of eight or nine men—women are usually excluded from traditional Muslim music as respectable women are traditionally prohibited from singing in public gatherings. although these traditions are changing —including a lead singer, one or two side singers, one or two harmoniums (which may be played by lead singer, side singer or someone else), and percussion. If there is only one percussionist, he plays the tabla and dholak, usually the tabla with the left hand and the dholak with the right. Often there will be two percussionists, in which case one might play the tabla and the other the dholak. There is also a chorus of four or five men who repeat key verses, and who aid and abet percussion by hand-clapping. The performers sit in two rows—the lead singer, side singers and harmonium players in the front row, and the chorus and percussionists in the back row.
Hamd’ is also used extensively in Christian religious music from Pakistan and all over the world where people from this region are found.’Hamd’ isn’t the exclusive domain of any religion. As pointed out – it denotes praise to God, it is more extensively used in the Muslim world. It is usually used in conjunction with the Sanna and referred to as ‘Hamd – o – Sanna’.
The dafli, also popularly known as daf, dappler or tambourine, is a must for weddings. Made of wooden ring with a double row of bells and a playing surface with a 10″ diameter, our dafli is a perfect accompaniment to the dholki. The pleasant sound of the dafli will elevate the tempo and mood of all celebrations. Easy to play with no beforehand practice required – with these daflis anyone can add to the music played in weddings and other celebrations.
Classical music of Pakistan is based on the traditional music of South Asia which was patronized by various empires that ruled the region and gave birth to several genres of classic music including the Klasik and Hindustani classical music. The classical music of Pakistan has two main principles, ‘sur’ and ‘lai’ (rhythm). The systematic organization of musical notes into a scale is known as a raag. The arrangement of rhythm (lai) in a cycle is known as taal.
The major genres of classical music in Pakistan are dhrupad and khayal. Dhrupad is approaching extinction in Pakistan despite vocalists like Ustad Badar uz Zaman, Ustad Hafeez Khan and Ustad Afzal Khan have managed to keep this art form alive.
There are many families from gharanas of classical music who inherited the music from their forefathers and are still performing.
Pakistani folk music deals with subjects surrounding daily life in less grandiose terms than the love and emotion usually contained in its traditional and classical counterpart. In Pakistan, each province has its own variation of popular folk music.
Pakistan has created many famous singers in this discipline such as the late Alam Lohar, who was very influential in the period of 1940 until 1979: he created the concept of “jugni” and this has been a folk song ever since, and he sang heer, sufiana kalaams, mirza, sassi and many more famous folk stories. Other famous folk singers include Sain Zahoor and Alam Lohar from Punjab and Allan Fakir and Mai Bhaghi from Sindh, Akhtar Chanal Zahri from Baluchistan and Zarsanga from North-West Frontier Province who is considered the queen of Pashto folk music.
The music of Balochistan province is very rich and full of varieties due to the many different types of languages which are spoken in the province, including Balochi, Pashto, Brahui, Persian and Saraiki. Balochi music stems basically from Persian Music due to the close proximity of Iran. Although Balochi singers have still not made a mark on the Pakistani music scene, there are many Balochi singers and these include;Faiz Mohammad Faizok, baloch. winner of a world singing competition award.Who Was a great Balochi Folk Singer.Ali Reza Askani, Aref Baloch, Asim Baloch.
Music from the Punjab province includes many different varieties. The traditional music utilizes instruments like the dhol, flute, dholak, and tumbi. The most commonly recognized form of Punjabi music, bhangra, is based on drum rhythms of the dhol. Its modern popularity has led to the use of new instruments and electronic sound sampling. Bhangra is a Punjabi folk dance that has become popular all over Pakistan. Bhangra and Punjabi folk songs have been an integral part of the fertile provinces cultural history and many themes are related to harvest and cultivation. Others still draw on the poetic history of the province which transcend ethnic and religious boundaries. The late Alam Lohar is noted for contributing in Punjabi music since the formation of Pakistan until his death in 1979 and popularising the music term Jugni and the Punjabi instrument Chimta.
Potohari has a rich tradition of poetry recital accompanied by sitar, ghara, tabla, harmonium and dholak. These poems are often highly lyrical and somewhat humorous and secular in nature, though religious sher are also recited.
The Late Alam Lohar and Arif Lohar are notable Punjabi singers of Pakistan.
Music from Sindh province is sung in Sindhi, and is generally performed in either the “Baits” or “Waee” styles. The Baits style is vocal music in Sanhoon or Graham (high voice). Waee instrumental music is performed in a variety of ways using a string instrument. Waee, also known as Kafi, is found in the surrounding areas of Balochistan, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Common instruments used in Sindhi regional music include the Yaktaro, Narr, and Naghara.
The predominant language found in Pakistan’s Northern Areas has an extensive oral history which dates back several thousand years. With the increase in tourism to Pakistan’s Northern Areas and increased domestic as well as international awareness of the local folk music, the Shinha folk traditions have managed to stay alive and vibrant. A dardic language with considerable Persian influence is found in Pakistan’s Chitral region in the North West of the country. Khowar folk music had considerable patronage particularly during the rule of the Mehtars in the last century. Folk music in this region has remained relatively pure and unscathed by modern influences due to the relative isolation of this district. The arrival of many refugees from the adjacent Nuristan province of Afghanistan and the subsequent increase in commercial activity in Chitrali bazaars allowed this local form of music to flourish in the past few decades.
Persian is spoken mainly in the North West of Pakistan but there are also considerable Persian speaking inhabitants in Pakistan’s major urban centres of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad.
Music from Hazara Division is sung in Hindko, and is generally performed in either the “Maheyay” or “sher” styles.
Pakistani music in the 21st century revitalized itself.
In 2013 Atif Aslam became the 1st Pakistani pop singer to perform at The O2 Arena London twice & was also named in 2012 among top performers of Dubai alongside Pitbull, Enrique Iglesias, Il Divo, Gotye, Evanescence & Swedish House Mafia.
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Kanika Kapoor is an Indian Punjabi Sufi folk singer from the United Kingdom.
In 2012, Kanika released her 1st music video. The music was by Dr. Zeus and the song featured the rapper. She has a passion for designer dresses. she was born in logfor.
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Gurdas Maan is an Indian singer, songwriter, choreographer, and actor. He is considered one of the most notable figures in the world of Punjabi music. He was born in Giddarbaha village of the Indian state of Punjab and gained national attention in 1980 with the song “Dil Da Mamla Hai.” Since then, he has gone on to record over 34 albums and has written over 305 songs. in 2013 he announced the launch of his YouTube channel http://www.YouTube.com/GurdasMaan to stay connected with his fans via video blogs and old as well as new music videos.
Gurdas Maan was formally educated in D.A.V College, Abohar & Malout, Punjab. After completing his education there, his parents enrolled him in a further education institute in Patiala. As a keen sports enthusiast Maan was fascinated by the National Institute of Sports in the city; this prompted him to join the N.I.S. and gain a Masters degree in physical education.
He took part in youth festivals organized by universities and won several awards for his singing and acting, always supported by his friends. He competed in many athletic events and won medals including a bronze at the National Championship as well as achieving a black belt in judo.
In one of his stage plays, he performed a song he had written called “Dil Da Mamla Hai.” The play was seen by a producer for Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar, the producer who thought the song to have potential approached Maan with a proposition for a TV performance of the song to which Maan agreed. When the song was aired on 31 December 1980 it gained national attention and Gurdas Maan became a national figure. The success of the song attracted the attention of HMV who wanted to record and release it. With HMV Maan eventually released his debut album a year later in 1981. When Maan began his career as a solo performer in India, the music industry was dominated by duet artists and he reportedly declined many offers to become part of a duet as he wished to perform and become a successful solo artist. The film Gurdas Mann starred in, “Mamla Garbar Hai” was directed by Hari Dutt.
During his early career he also wrote and directed TV programs such as POP Time for the Doordarshan Network in Delhi.
Gurdas Maan is often credited with raising Punjabi folk music from a regional level mostly in the Punjab to gain international recognition. His album Apna Punjab won Best Album at the 1998 Asian Pop and Media Awards held in Birmingham. Maan won Best Song for the title track and Best International Artist the same year. In addition to these awards, Maan more recently won three music awards of Best Lyrics, Best Song (“Heer”), as well as Best Singer of the Year at the ETC Channel Punjabi Music Awards on 6 March 2005 (Ravinder).
Gurdas Maan received an honorary degree of Doctor of Music from the University of Wolverhampton on 7 September 2010. Maan performed at the Royal Albert Hall for two nights in April 2011 as part of his UK tour. This was the 1st time Maan performed at the Royal Albert Hall, an opportunity that very few artists come across.
On other fronts, Maan has starred in blockbuster Bollywood films and has received numerous awards, including the Jury’s Award, presented to him by the president of India in 2005.
In 2009 he won “Best International Album” at the UK Asian Music Awards for Boot Polishan.
Gurdas Maan is best known as an actor for his performances in two films: Waris Shah-Ishq Da Waaris, which was nominated as India’s selection for the Academy Awards, and Shaheed-E-Mohabbat (1999). The 1st was by Sai Productions, which tells the real-life story of Boota Singh.
Gurdas appeared in the hit film Shaheed Udham Singh, in which he played the role of Bhagat Singh, a revolutionary, with no prejudices based on religion, caste or creed. As a singer Maan has worked with music directors such as Laxmikant Pyarelal, Bappi Lahiri, Anu Malik, Nadeem Sharvan, Amar Haidipur, Charanjeet Ahuja, and Jaswant Bhanwra.
He starred alongside Juhi Chawla in the epic Des Hoyaa Pardes, an emotional film illustrating the tragedies faced by the people of Punjab in the 1980s. He adopted the role of a son of a well-respected Jatt (bilingual separatist) Gurdev Singh Somal. He falls in love with a high-ranking police officer’s daughter. Before the wedding, the father is murdered by separatists. This tale soon twists into the inevitable demise of Gurshaan (Gurdas Maan). This movie was based on actual events.
Aside from singing in Punjabi, he is fluent in Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Haryanvi and Rajasthani. As an actor he has performed in Punjabi, Hindi and Tamil movies, but he is best known for his starring role in Waris Shah-Ishq Da Waaris, a depiction of the Punjabi poet Waris Shah during the creation of his epic poem Heer Ranjha, again co-starring Juhi Chawla and Divya Dutta. Waris Shah-Ishq Da Waaris was also the 1st Punjabi movie which was nominated for OSCAR Awards 2006. He made a special appearance in Veer-Zaara with Shahrukh Khan and Preity Zinta.
He has appeared in Ucha Dar Babe Nanak Da, Mamla Garbar Hai (1984), Long Da Lishkara (1986), Qurbani Jatt Di (1990), Pratigya (1990), Roohani Taaqat (1991), Saali Adhi Ghar Waali (1992), Wanted: Gurdas Maan Dead or Alive (1994), Kachehri (1994), and Zindagi Khoobsoorat Hai (2002).
Maan is married to Manjeet Maan and has one son, Gurikk who has done his schooling at Yadavindra Public School and Mayo College. He also studied at Eton College. He has two brothers of which one is Paramjit Bahia and another isn’t known.
At a village near Karnal, Haryana, India on 20 January 2007 Maan was involved in a car accident in which his Range Rover was hit and severely damaged by a truck. Maan escaped with minor injuries on his face, hands and chest. His driver Ganesh was injured seriously but recovered soon after.
This was the 2nd car accident of two that Gurdas Maan was involved in. The 1st accident was a head-on collision between Maan’s vehicle and a truck on 9 January 2001 at a village near Rupnagar, Punjab. In this accident Maan’s driver Tejpal died. Maan later admitted that his driver asked him to wear his seat belt minutes before the accident. Maan believes that if it had not been for his driver’s advice, he would have been dead as well. Later he wrote and performed a song “Baithi sade naal savari utter gayi” dedicated to his driver, who was also his good friend.
In a newspaper interview Maan revealed to the Express & Star, that he is an avid supporter of Manchester United football club.
Gurdas Maan started his career as an employee of Punjab State Electricity Board.
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Born in Milan, Italy, Abbado is the son of the violinist and composer Michelangelo Abbado, who was his 1st piano teacher, and the brother of musician Marcello Abbado. After studying piano, composition, and conducting at the Milan Conservatory, at age 16, in 1955 Claudio Abbado studied conducting with Hans Swarowsky at the Vienna Academy of Music. He also spent time at the Chigiana Academy at Siena. In 1958 he won the international Serge Koussevitsky Competition for conductors, at the Tanglewood Music Festival, which resulted in a number of operatic conducting engagements in Italy, and in 1963 he won the Dimitri Mitropoulos Prize for conductors, allowing him to work for five months with the New York Philharmonic.
Abbado made his dxbut at La Scala in his hometown of Milan in 1960 and served as its music director from 1968 to 1986, conducting not only the traditional Italian repertoire but also presenting a contemporary opera each year, as well as a concert series devoted to the works of Alban Berg and Modest Mussorgsky. He was instrumental in increasing accessibility to the working-class. He also founded the Filarmonica della Scala in 1982, for the performance of orchestral repertoire in concert.
He conducted the Vienna Philharmonic for the 1st time in 1965 in a concert at the Salzburg Festival, and became the principal conductor in 1971. He served as music director and conductor for the Vienna State Opera from 1986 to 1991, with notable productions such as Mussorgsky’s original Boris Godunov and his seldom-heard Khovanshchina, Franz Schubert’s Fierrabras, and Gioacchino Rossini’s Il viaggio a Reims.
In 1965, he made his British debut at the Halle Orchestra, followed, in 1966, by his London Symphony Orchestra debut. He continued to conduct on a regular basis with the London Orchestra, until 1979. From 1979 to 1988 he became the principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra, and from 1982 to 1986 he was principal guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. With both orchestras, Abbado made a number of recordings for Deutsche Grammophon.
In 1989, the Berlin Philharmonic elected him as their chief conductor, to succeed Herbert von Karajan. In 1998, he announced that he would be leaving the Berlin Philharmonic after the expiry of his contract in 2002.
He was diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2000 and the treatment led to the removal of a portion of his digestive system.
In 2004 he returned to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic and performed Mahler’s Symphony No. 6 in a series of recorded live concerts. The resulting CD won Best Orchestral Recording and Record of the Year in Gramophone Magazine’s 2006 awards. The Orchestra Academy of the Berlin Philharmonic established the Claudio Abbado Composition Prize in 2006 in his honour.
After recovering from cancer, he formed the Lucerne Festival Orchestra in 2003 and their concerts have been highly acclaimed. He also serves as music director of the Orchestra Mozart of Bologna, Italy.
In September 2007 he announced that he was cancelling all of his forthcoming conducting engagements for the “near future” on the advice of his physicians but two months later he resumed conducting concerts with an engagement in Bologna. In July 2011, aged 78, he declared himself to be in good health.
Abbado’s son is the opera director Daniele Abbado. From his relationship with the violinist Viktoria Mullova, he is the father of her oldest child, Misha. His nephew, Roberto Abbado, is also a conductor.
Abbado has performed and recorded a wide range of Romantic works, in particular Gustav Mahler, whose symphonies he has recorded several times. He is also noted for his interpretations of modern works by composers such as Arnold Schoenberg, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Giacomo Manzoni, Luigi Nono, Bruno Maderna, Thomas Adler, Giovanni Sollima, Roberto Carnevale, Franco Donatoni and George Benjamin.
In 1988, he founded the music festival Wien Modern, which has since expanded to include all aspects of contemporary art. This interdisciplinary festival takes place each year under his direction.
Abbado is also well known for his work with young musicians. He is founder and music director of the European Union Youth Orchestra and the Gustav Mahler Jugendorchester (1986). He is also a frequent guest conductor with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe with whom he recorded a cycle of Franz Schubert symphonies to considerable acclaim. More recently, he has worked with the Orquesta Sinfxnica Simxn Bolxvar of Venezuela.
He was known for his Germanic orchestral repertory as well as his interest in the music of Gioacchino Rossini and Giuseppe Verdi.
Claudio Abbado has received many awards and recognitions among which the Grand cross of the Lxgion d’honneur, Bundesverdienstkreuz, Imperial Prize of Japan, Mahler Medal, Khytera Prize, and honorary doctorates from the universities of Ferrara, Cambridge, Aberdeen, and Havana.
In 1973, he won the Mozart Medal awarded by Mozartgemeinde Wien, and the Ernst von Siemens Music Prize in 1994.
He has won 1997 Grammy Award in the Best Small Ensemble Performance category for “Hindemith: Kammermusik No. 1 With Finale 1921, Op. 24 No. 1″ and 2005 Grammy Award in the Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with Orchestra) category for “Beethoven: Piano Cons. Nos. 2 & 3″ performed by Martha Argerich.
In April 2012, Abbado was voted into the Gramophone Hall of Fame, and in May of the same year, he was awarded the conductor prize at the Royal Philharmonic Society Music Awards.
On 30 August 2013, he was appointed to the Italian Senate as a Senator for life by President Giorgio Napolitano because of his “outstanding cultural achievements”.
Related Sites for Claudio Abbado
Music of Wales
Wales has a history of folk music related to the Celtic music of countries such as Ireland and Scotland. It has distinctive instrumentation and song types, and is often heard at a twmpath, gŵyl werin (folk festival) or noson lawen (a traditional party similar to the Gaelic “Cxilidh”). Modern Welsh folk musicians have sometimes reconstructed traditions which had been suppressed or forgotten, and have competed with imported and indigenous rock and pop trends.
Music in Wales is often connected with male voice choirs, such as the Morriston Orpheus Choir and Treorchy Male Voice Choir, both enjoying a world wide reputation. This tradition of choral singing has been expressed through sporting events, especially in the country’s national sport of rugby, which in 1905 saw the 1st singing of a national anthem, Wales’ Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, at the start of an international sporting encounter.
A tradition of brass bands dating from the Victorian era continues, particularly in the South Wales Valleys, with Welsh bands such as the Cory Band being one of the most successful in the world.
The 20th century saw many solo singers from Wales become not only national but international stars. Ivor Novello, who was a singer-songwriter during the First World War. Also, opera-singers such as Geraint Evans and later Delme Bryn-Jones found fame post World War II. The 1960s saw the rise of two distinctive Welsh acts, Tom Jones and Shirley Bassey, both of whom defined Welsh vocal styles for several generations.
In more modern times there has been a thriving musical scene. Bands and artists which have gained popularity include acts such as Man, Budgie, and solo artist John Cale in the early 1970s and solo artists Bonnie Tyler and Shakin’ Stevens in the 1980s. These were followed by a wave of acts in the 1990s and early 21st century which produced a credible Welsh ‘sound’ embraced by the public and the media press of Great Britain. Such acts included the Manic Street Preachers, Catatonia, Super Furry Animals and Gorky’s Zygotic Mynci; the latter two bands being notable for many of their songs’ lyrics being in Welsh.
Wales has a history of using music as a primary form of communication. As early as 1187, medieval chronicler Geraldus Cambrensis stated that the Welsh sang in as many parts as there were people, and even that quite small children could harmonise.
The oldest known traditional songs from Wales are those connected to seasonal customs such as the Mari Lwyd or Hunting the Wren, in which both ceremonies contain processional songs where repetition is a musical feature. Other such ceremonial or feasting traditions connected with song are the New Year’s Day Calennig and the welcoming of Spring Candlemas in which the traditional wassail was followed by dancing and feast songs. Children would sing ‘pancake songs’ on Shrove Tuesday and summer carols were connected to the festival of Calan Mai.
For many years, Welsh folk music had been suppressed, due to the effects of the Act of Union, which promoted the English language, and the rise of the Methodist church in the 18th and 19th century. The church frowned on traditional music and dance, though folk tunes were sometimes used in hymns. Since at least the 12th century, Welsh bards and musicians have participated in musical and poetic contests called eisteddfodau; this is the equivalent of the Scottish Mod and the Irish Fleadh Cheoil.
Welsh traditional music declined with the rise of Nonconformist religion in the 18th century, which emphasized choral singing over instruments, and religious over secular uses of music; traditional musical styles became associated with drunkenness and immorality. The development of hymn singing in Wales is closely tied with the Welsh Methodist revival of the late 18th century. The hymns were popularised by writers such as William Williams, while others were set to popular secular tunes or adopted Welsh ballad tunes. The appointment of Henry Mills as a musical overseer to the Welsh Methodist congregations in the 1780s saw a drive to improve singing throughout Wales. This saw the formation of local musical societies and in the 1st half of the 19th century Musical primers and collections of tunes were printed and distributed. Congregational singing was given further impetus with the arrival of the temperance movement, which saw the Temperance Choral Union organising annual singing festivals, these included hymn singing by combined choirs. The publication of Llyfr Tonau Cynulleidfaol by John Roberts in 1859 provided congregations with a body of standard tunes that were less complex with unadorned harmonies. This collection began the practice of combining together to sing tunes from the book laid the foundation for Cymanfa Ganu, hymn singing festivals. Around the same period, the growing availability of music in the tonic sol-fa notation, promoted by the likes of Eleazar Roberts, allowed congregations to read music more fluently. One particularly popular hymn of this period was “Llef”.
In the 1860s, a revival of traditional Welsh music began, with the formation of the National Eisteddfod Society, followed by the foundation of London-area Welsh Societies and the publication of Nicholas Bennett’s Alawon fy Ngwlad, a compilation of traditional tunes, in the 1890s.
Although choral music in the 19th century by Welsh composers was mainly religious, there was a steady body of secular songs being produced. Composers such as Joseph Parry, whose work Myfanwy is still a favourite Welsh song, were followed by David Jenkins and D. Emlyn Evans, who tailored songs specifically for the Victorian music market. These secular hymns were embraced by the emerging male voice choirs, which formed originally as the tenor and bass sections of chapel choirs, but also sang outside the church in a form of recreation and fellowship. The industrial workforce attracted less of a jollity of English glee clubs and also avoided the more robust militaristic style of music. Composers such as Charles Gounod were imitated by Welsh contemporaries such as Parry, Protheroe and Price to cater for a Welsh fondness of dramatic narratives, wide dynamic contrasts and thrilling climaxes. As well as the growth of male voice choirs during the industrial period, Wales also experienced an increase in the popularity of brass bands. The bands were popular among the working classes, and were adopted by paternalistic employers who saw brass bands as a constructive activity for their work forces. Solo artists of note during the nineteenth century included charismatic singers Robert Rees and Sarah Edith Wynne, who would tour outside Wales and helped build the country’s reputation as a “land of song”.
In the twentieth century, Wales produced a large number of classical and operatic soloists of international reputation, including Ben Davies, Geraint Evans, Robert Tear, Bryn Terfel, Gwyneth Jones, Rebecca Evans and Helen Watts, as well as composers such as Alun Hoddinott, William Mathias and Karl Jenkins. From the 1980s onwards, crossover artists such as Katherine Jenkins, Charlotte Church and Aled Jones began to come to the fore. Welsh National Opera, established in 1946, and the BBC Cardiff Singer of the World competition, launched in 1983, attracted attention to Wales’s growing reputation as a centre of excellence in the classical genre.
Composer and conductor Mansel Thomas OBE, who worked mainly in South Wales, was one of the most influential musicians of his generation. For many years employed by the BBC, he promoted the careers of many composers and performers. He himself wrote vocal, choral, instrumental, band and orchestral music, specialising in setting songs and poetry. Many of his orchestral and chamber music pieces are based on Welsh folk songs and dances.
After World War II, two significant musical organisations were founded, the Welsh National Opera and the BBC National Orchestra of Wales, both were factors in Welsh composers moving away from choral compositions to instrumental and orchestral pieces. Modern Welsh composers such as Alun Hoddinott and William Mathias produced large scale orchestrations, though both have returned to religious themes within their work. Both men would also explore Welsh culture, with Mathias setting music to the works of Dylan Thomas, while Hoddinott, along with the likes of Mervyn Burtch and David Wynne, would be influenced by the poetic and mythical past of Wales.
The 1960s saw important developments in both Welsh and English language music in Wales. The BBC had already produced Welsh language Radio programmes, such as Noson Lowen in the 1940s, and in the 1960s the corporation followed suite with television shows Hob y Deri Dando and Disc a Dawn giving Welsh acts a weekly stage to promote their sound. A more homely programme Gwlad y Gan was produced by rival channel TWW which set classic Welsh songs in idyllic settings and starred baritone Ivor Emmanuel. The Anglo-American cultural influence was a strong draw on young musicians, with Tom Jones and Shirley Bassey becoming world famous singers; and the growth of The Beatles’ Apple Records label saw Welsh acts Mary Hopkin and Badfinger join the roster. Not to be outdone, the short lived Y Blew, born out of Aberystwyth University, became the 1st Welsh language pop band in 1967. This was followed in 1969 with the establishment of the Sain record label, one of the most important catalyst for change in the Welsh language music scene.
The 1970s and 1980s were a less influential time for Welsh popular music, with many Welsh acts, such as Bonnie Tyler and Shakin’ Stevens, being commercially successful but through mimicking American music styles such as Motown or Rock and Roll. The Welsh language scene saw a dip in commercial popularity, but a rise in experimentation with acts such as punk band Trwynau Coch leading into a ‘New Wave’ of music. Bands that followed, like Anhrefn and Datblygu, found support from BBC Radio 1 disc jockey John Peel, one of the few DJ’s outside Wales to champion Welsh language music. In the 1990s, the Welsh pop scene flourished, with the emergence of Manic Street Preachers and the Stereophonics, who although not singing in Welsh, brought a sense of Welshness through iconography, lyrics and interviews. The same period saw Catatonia, Super Furry Animals and Gorky’s Zygnotic Mynci, bilingual bands that were successful enough to bring the Welsh language to an English speaking audience.
Early musical traditions during the 17th and 18th century saw the emergence of more complex carols, away from the repetitive ceremonial songs. These carols featured complex poetry based on cynghanedd, some were sung to English tunes, but many used Welsh melodies such as ‘Ffarwel Ned Puw’. The most common Welsh folk song is the love song, with lyrics pertaining to the sorrow of parting or in praise of the girl. A few employ sexual metaphor and mention the act of bundling. After love songs, the ballad was a very popular form of song, with its tales of manual labour, agriculture and the every day life. Popular themes in the 19th century included murder, emigration and colliery disasters; sung to popular melodies from Ireland or North America.
The most traditional of Welsh instruments is the harp, and is considered the national musical item. The triple harp is a particularly distinctive tradition: it has three rows of strings, with every semitone separately represented, while modern concert harps use a pedal system to change key by stopping the relevant strings. It has been popularised through the efforts of Nansi Richards, Llio Rhydderch and Robin Huw Bowen. The penillion is a traditional form of Welsh singing poetry, accompanied by the harp, in which the singer and harpist follow different melodies so the stressed syllables of the poem coincide with accented beats of the harp melody.
The Robert ap Huw manuscript documents 30 ancient harp music pieces that make up a fragment of the lost repertoire of the medieval Welsh bards. The music was composed between the 14th and 16th centuries, transmitted orally, then written down in a unique tablature and later copied in the early 17th century. This manuscript contains the earliest body of harp music from anywhere in Europe and is one of the key sources of early Welsh music.
Another distinctive instrument is the crwth, also a stringed instrument of a type once widespread in northern Europe, it was played in Wales from the Middle Ages, which, superseded by the fiddle, lingered on later in Wales than elsewhere but died out by the nineteenth century at the latest. The fiddle is an integral part of Welsh folk music.
See also Welsh Bagpipes, Pibgorn and Crwth.
Welsh folk is known for a variety of instrumental and vocal styles, as well as more recent singer-songwriters drawing on folk traditions.
By the late 1970s, Wales, like many of its neighbours, had seen the beginning of a roots revival, the beginnings of which can be traced back to the 1960s folk singer-songwriter Dafydd Iwan. Iwan was instrumental in the creation of a modern Welsh folk scene, and is known for fiercely patriotic and nationalistic songs, as well as the foundation of the Sain record label. The Festival Interceltique de Lorient saw the formation of Ar Log, who spearheaded a revival of Welsh fiddling and harp-playing, and continued recording into the 21st century. A Welsh session band, following in the footsteps of their Irish counterparts Planxty, Cilmeri recorded two albums with a uniquely Welsh feel. Welsh folk rock includes a number of bands, such as Moniars, Gwerinos, Blue Horses, Bob Delyn a’r Ebillion and Taran.
Sain was founded in 1969 by Dafydd Iwan and Huw Jones with the aid of funding from Brian Morgan Edwards. Originally, the label signed Welsh singers, mostly with overtly political lyrics, eventually branching out into a myriad of different styles. These included country music, singer-songwriters (Meic Stevens), stadium rock (The Alarm) and classical singers (Aled Jones, Bryn Terfel).