What is “Fundus of gallbladder” ?

Fundus of gallbladder

Fundus of gallbladder
Fundus of gallbladder
Fundus of gallbladder

The fundus of gallbladder is the portion of the gallbladder which lies the farthest from the cystic duct.

It is covered with peritoneum.

A traditional cholecystectomy is most commonly performed from the infundibulum to the fundus.

It’s at the same level as the transpyloric plane.

Related Sites for Fundus of gallbladder

What is “Body of gallbladder” ?

Body of gallbladder

Body of gallbladder
Body of gallbladder
Body of gallbladder

The body of gallbladder is the portion of the gallbladder which is distal to the neck and proximal to the fundus of gallbladder. The gallbladder is located right below the liver in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. The body is attached to the liver and is about 4 inches long. It resembles a pear in shape.

The main purpose of the gallbladder is to store bile, or gall. The gallbladder is part of the biliary system and serves as a reservoir for bile, which is produced by the liver. The liver produces the bile and then it flows through the bile ducts into the gallbladder. The gallbladder releases the bile in response to a hormone called cholecystokinin, which is released from the small intestine. When the bile is released, it is released into the small intestine and its purpose is to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones. After the fat is absorbed, the bile is also absorbed and transported back to the liver for reuse.

By far, the most common gallbladder problem is Gallstones”. The gallbladder is supposed to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all times. Hydrogen ions secreted from the inner lining of the gallbladder are supposed to keep the bile acidic enough to prevent hardening. To dilute the bile, water and electrolytes from the digestion system are added. Also, salts attach themselves to cholesterol molecules in the bile to keep them from crystallizing. Sometimes there can be too much cholesterol or bilirubin in the bile, or the gallbladder doesn’t empty like it should and the systems listed above fail. This is how gallstones form. All it takes is a tiny bit of calcium to get coated with either cholesterol or bilirubin and crystallization of the bile, to form a gallstone. Gallstones are dangerous because they may never cause any pain or symptoms until they are causing a problem in your biliary system.

The recurrence rate of gallstone related issues is very high, so elective surgical resection of the gallbladder is the standard of care after such issues. This is fine because the digestive system will still be able to function properly. The gallbladder does not produce anything needed for digestion, it simply stores bile until digestion, when it is released into the small intestine. With no gallbladder, bile will just continuously drip from the liver during digestion for the breakdown of fats. Patients undergoing a cholecystectomy seldom have long-term post-surgical issues with the function of their digestive system.

Related Sites for Body of gallbladder

What is “Interlobular bile ducts” ?

Interlobular bile ducts

Interlobular bile ducts
Interlobular bile ducts
Interlobular bile ducts

The interlobular bile ducts carries bile in the liver between the Canals of Hering and the intrahepatic bile ducts. They are part of the interlobular portal triad and can be easily localized by looking for the much larger portal vein. The cells of the ducts are described as cuboidal epithelium with increasing amounts of connective tissue around it.

Related Sites for Interlobular bile ducts

What is “Intrahepatic bile ducts” ?

Intrahepatic bile ducts

Intrahepatic bile ducts
Intrahepatic bile ducts
Intrahepatic bile ducts

Intrahepatic bile ducts compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver.

Related Sites for Intrahepatic bile ducts

What is “Portal triad” ?

Portal triad

Portal triad
Portal triad
Portal triad

The misnomer “portal triad” traditionally has included only the 1st three structures, and was named before lymphatic vessels were discovered in the structure. It can refer both to the largest branch of each of these vessels running inside the hepatoduodenal ligament, and to the smaller branches of these vessels inside the liver.

In the smaller portal triads, the four vessels lie in a network of connective tissue and are surrounded on all sides by hepatocytes. The ring of hepatocytes abutting the connective tissue of the triad is called the periportal limiting plate.

Related Sites for Portal triad

What is “Periportal space” ?

Periportal space

Periportal space
Periportal space
Periportal space

The space of Mall is a space between the stroma of the portal canal and the outermost hepatocytes in the hepatic lobule, and is thought to be one of the sites where lymph originates in the liver.

It is also known as the “periportal space of Mall”.

Related Sites for Periportal space

What is “Perisinusoidal space” ?

Perisinusoidal space

Perisinusoidal space
Perisinusoidal space
Perisinusoidal space

The space of Disse is a location in the liver between a hepatocyte and a sinusoid. It contains the blood plasma. Microvilli of hepatocytes extend into this space, allowing proteins and other plasma components from the sinusoids to be absorbed by the hepatocytes. Fenestration and discontinuity of the endothelium facilitates this transport. This space may be obliterated in liver disease, leading to decreased uptake by hepatocytes of nutrients and wastes (like bilirubin, for example).

The Space of Disse also contains Ito cells, also called hepatic stellate cells, which store fat or fat soluble vitamins. A variety of insults that cause inflammation can result in Ito cells transforming to myofibroblasts, resulting in collagen production, fibrosis, and cirrhosis.

Related Sites for Perisinusoidal space

Fibrous capsule of Glisson

Fibrous capsule of Glisson

Fibrous capsule of Glisson
Fibrous capsule of Glisson
Fibrous capsule of Glisson

It is covered by a single layer of mesothelial cells. A capsule for fibrous cells or tissues, as that surrounding the kidney and thyroid.

It is named for Francis Glisson.

It can swell if a woman is suffering from pre-eclampsia, causing right upper quadrant pain.

Related Sites for Fibrous capsule of Glisson

Suprarenal impression on liver

Suprarenal impression on liver

Suprarenal impression on liver
Suprarenal impression on liver
Suprarenal impression on liver

Close to the right of the fossa between the uncovered area and the caudate lobe and immediately above the renal impression is a small triangular depressed area, the suprarenal impression, the greater part of which is devoid of peritoneum; it lodges the right suprarenal gland.

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray’s Anatomy.

Related Sites for Suprarenal impression on liver

Colic impression on liver

Colic impression on liver

Colic impression on liver
Colic impression on liver
Colic impression on liver

The portion of the under surface of the right lobe to the right of the fossa for the gall-bladder presents two impressions, one situated behind the other, and separated by a ridge. The anterior of these two impressions, the colic impression, is shallow and is produced by the right colic flexure.

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray’s Anatomy.

Related Sites for Colic impression on liver